Alfred Goodman Gilman is an American pharmacologist and biochemist. He shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Martin Rodbell for their discoveries regarding G-Proteins. Rodbell has shown in the 1960s that GTP was involved in cell signaling. It was Gilman who actually discovered the proteins that interacted with the GTP to initiate signaling the cascades within the cell. Gilman was born in July 1, 1941 at New Haven, Connecticut. Gilman graduated from Yale with his B.S. in 1962. He then entered in a combined MD/PHD program at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio and graduated in 1969, then did his post-doctoral studies at National Institutes of Health with Nobel laureate Marshall Nirenberg from 1969 until 1971. In 1971 Dr. Gilman became a professor of pharmacology at University of Virginia, School of Medicine in Charlottesville, Virginia. In 1981 subsequently he became chairman of the department of Pharmacology at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. He was elected as a member of National Academy of Sciences in 1986. In addition to the Nobel Prize, he won the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Science Research as well as Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in 1989 together with Edwin Krebs winner of Nobel Prize in medicine in 1992. In 2005, he was elected as Dean of University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas, Texas. He also serves on the board of advisors of Scientists and Engineers for America, an organization focused on promoting sound sciences in American government.